16.55. point2dem

The point2dem program produces a digital elevation model (DEM) in the GeoTIFF format and/or an orthographic image from a set of point clouds. The clouds can be created by the parallel_stereo command (Section 16.50), or be in LAS or CSV format.

The heights in the produced DEM are relative to a datum (ellipsoid). They are calculated by weighted averaging around each grid point of the heights of points in the cloud (see --search-radius-factor).

The output DEM is by default in the geographic coordinate system (longitude and latitude). Any projection can be specified via the --t_srs option. The grid size is set with --tr for the given projection, and the extent with --t_projwin. The grid corners are placed at integer multiples of the grid size, and the created DEM has a ground footprint which is half a grid pixel larger than the bounding box of the grid points.

The obtained DEMs can be colorized or hillshaded (Section 6.2.6), visualized with stereo_gui (Section 16.67) or analyzed using GDAL tools (Section 16.24).

16.55.1. Examples

When creating an DEM it is very important to pick a projection that is appropriate for the region of interest. The default projection is geographic (longitude and latitude), which is not good for regions close to the poles. In such cases, it is best to pick a stereographic projection. Auto-guess projection center and datum

point2dem --stereographic --auto-proj-center run/run-PC.tif

This creates run/run-DEM.tif, which is a GeoTIFF file, with each 32-bit floating point pixel value being the height above the datum (ellipsoid). The datum is saved in the geoheader and can be seen with gdalinfo (Section 16.24).

In this case the stereographic projection was used, and its center was auto-guessed as the median longitude and latitude of the points in the cloud. The grid size was also auto-guessed.

ASP normally auto-guesses the datum, otherwise the option -r can be used. If desired to change the output no-data value (which can also be inspected with gdalinfo), use the options --nodata-value. Orthoimage and error image

point2dem run/run-PC.tif -r moon --errorimage \
    --orthoimage run/run-L.tif

This produced the DEM, in the default geographic projection (longitude and latitude, which sometimes is problematic).

Then, the left aligned image was used to create an orthoimage, by orthographically projecting it onto the DEM. The resulting run/run-DRG.tif file will be saved as a GeoTIFF image with the same geoheader as the DEM.

In addition, the file run/run-IntersectionErr.tif is created, based on the 4th band of the PC.tif file, having the gridded version of the closest distance between the pair of rays intersecting at each point in the cloud (Section 11.4.1). This is also called the triangulation error, but it is only one way of evaluating the quality of the DEM.

Here we have explicitly specified the spheroid (-r moon), rather than have it inferred automatically. The Moon spheroid will have a radius of 1737.4 km. Custom grid size with geographic projection

point2dem --tr 0.0001 run/run-PC.tif

It is important to note that the grid size here, passed to --tr, is in degrees, because the default projection is in degrees. If you set your projection with --t_projwin and it is in meters, the value of --tr will be in meters too, so a reasonable value may be --tr 0.5, perhaps. It is best to let the grid size be computed automatically, so not specifying --tr at all, or otherwise use a multiple of the automatically determined grid size (Section 16.55.3).

If desired to change the range of longitudes from [0, 360] to [-180, 180], or vice-versa, post-process obtained DEM with image_calc (Section 16.33). Polar stereographic projection

point2dem --stereographic --proj-lon 0 --proj-lat -90 \
  run/run-PC.tif UTM projection

point2dem --utm 13 run/run-PC.tif


proj="+proj=utm +zone=13 +datum=WGS84 +units=m +no_defs"
point2dem --t_srs "$proj" run/run-PC.tif

The zone for the UTM projection depends on the region of interest.

See the options --sinusoidal, --mercator, etc., in Section 16.55.6 for how to set other projections. Multiple clouds

point2dem in1.las in2.csv run/run-PC.tif -o combined \
  --dem-spacing 0.001 --nodata-value -32768

Here LAS, CSV, and TIF point clouds (the latter obtained with parallel_stereo) are fused together into a single DEM. The option --dem-spacing is an alias for --tr.

If it is desired to use the --orthoimage option with multiple clouds, the clouds need to be specified first, followed by the L.tif images. Ground-level or projected data

If a dataset is in a tif file with three bands, representing projected data or Cartesian values in a local coordinate system, it can be gridded as:

point2dem --input-is-projected \
  --t_srs <proj string>        \
  --tr 0.1                     \

See --input-is-projected for more details.

More examples are shown in Section 6.2.2.

16.55.2. Comparing with MOLA Data

When comparing the output of point2dem to laser altimeter data, like MOLA, it is important to understand the different kinds of data that are being discussed. By default, point2dem returns planetary radius values in meters. These are often large numbers that are difficult to deal with. If you use the -r mars option, the output terrain model will be in meters of elevation with reference to the IAU reference spheroid for Mars: 3,396,190 m. So if a post would have a radius value of 3,396,195 m, in the model returned with the -r mars option, that pixel would just be 5 m.

You may want to compare the output to MOLA data. MOLA data is released in three ‘flavors’, namely: Topography, Radius, and Areoid. The MOLA Topography data product that most people use is just the MOLA Radius product with the MOLA Areoid product subtracted. Additionally, it is important to note that all of these data products have a reference value subtracted from them. The MOLA reference value is NOT the IAU reference value, but 3,396,000 m.

In order to compare with the MOLA data, you can do one of two different things. You could operate purely in radius space, and have point2dem create radius values that are directly comparable to the MOLA radius data. You can do this by having point2dem subtract the MOLA reference value, by using either -r mola or setting --semi-major-axis 3396000 and --semi-minor-axis 3396000.

Alternatively, to get values that are directly comparable to MOLA Topography data, you will need to run point2dem with either -r mars or -r mola, then run the ASP tool dem_geoid (Section 16.18). This program will convert the DEM height values from being relative to the IAU reference spheroid or the MOLA spheroid to being relative to the MOLA Areoid.

The newly obtained DEM will inherit the datum from the unadjusted DEM, so it could be either of the two earlier encountered radii, but of course the heights in it will be in respect to the areoid, not to this datum. It is important to note that one cannot tell from inspecting a DEM if it was adjusted to be in respect to the areoid or not, so there is the potential of mixing up adjusted and unadjusted terrain models.

16.55.3. Post spacing

Recall that parallel_stereo creates a point cloud file as its output and that you need to use point2dem on to create a GeoTIFF that you can use in other tools. The point cloud file is the result of taking the image-to-image matches (which were created from the kernel sizes you specified, and the subpixel versions of the same, if used) and projecting them out into space from the cameras, and arriving at a point in real world coordinates. Since stereo does this for every pixel in the input images, the default value that point2dem uses (if you don’t specify anything explicitly) is the input image scale, because there’s an “answer” in the point cloud file for each pixel in the original image.

However, as you may suspect, this is probably not the best value to use because there really is not that much “information” in the data. The true resolution of the output model is dependent on a whole bunch of things (like the kernel sizes you choose to use) but also can vary from place to place in the image depending on the texture.

The general rule of thumb is to produce a terrain model that has a post spacing of about 3x the input image ground scale. This is based on the fact that it is nearly impossible to uniquely identify a single pixel correspondence between two images, but a 3x3 patch of pixels provides improved matching reliability. This depends on the stereo algorithm as well, however, with the asp_mgm algorithm producing a higher effective DEM resolution than asp_bm. As you go to numerically larger post-spacings on output, you are averaging more point data (that is probably spatially correlated anyway) together.

So you can either use the --dem-spacing argument to point2dem to do that directly, or you can use your favorite averaging algorithm to reduce the point2dem-created model down to the scale you want.

If you attempt to derive science results from an ASP-produced terrain model with the default DEM spacing, expect serious questions from reviewers.

16.55.4. Using with LAS or CSV clouds

The point2dem program can take as inputs point clouds in LAS and CSV formats. These differ from point clouds created by stereo by being, in general, not uniformly distributed. It is suggested that the user pick carefully the output resolution for such files (--dem-spacing). If the output DEM turns out to be sparse, the spacing could be increased, or one could experiment with increasing the value of --search-radius-factor, which will fill in small gaps in the output DEM by searching further for points in the input clouds.

It is expected that the input LAS files have spatial reference information such as WKT data. Otherwise it is assumed that the points are raw \(x,y,z\) values in meters in reference to the planet center.

Unless the output projection is explicitly set when invoking point2dem, the one from the first LAS file will be used.

For LAS or CSV clouds it is not possible to generate intersection error maps or ortho images.

For CSV point clouds, the option --csv-format must be set. If such a cloud contains easting, northing, and height above datum, the option --csv-proj4 containing a PROJ.4 string needs to be specified to interpret this data. If the PROJ.4 string is set, it will be also used for output DEMs, unless --t_srs is specified.

16.55.5. Output statistics

When point2dem concludes, it prints the percentage of valid pixels, which is the number of pixels in the produced floating-point image that are valid heights (not equal to the no-data value saved in the geoheader) divided by the total number of pixels, and then multiplied by 100. Note that if the DEM footprint is rotated in the image frame, there will be blank regions at image corners, so normally this percentage can be between 50 and 100 (or so) even when stereo correlation was fully successful.

16.55.6. Command-line options for point2dem

-h, --help

Display the help message.

--nodata-value <float (default: -3.40282347e+38)>

Set the nodata value.


Create images that have an alpha channel.

-n, --normalized

Also write a normalized version of the DEM (for debugging).

-o, --output-prefix <string (default: “”)>

Specify the output prefix. The output DEM will be <output prefix>-DEM.tif.


Write an orthoimage based on the texture files passed in as inputs (after the point clouds). Must pass <output prefix>-L.tif when using this option. Produces <output prefix>-DRG.tif.


Write an additional image, whose values represent the triangulation ray intersection error in meters (the closest distance between the rays emanating from the two cameras corresponding to the same point on the ground). Filename is <output prefix>-IntersectionErr.tif. If stereo triangulation was done with the option --compute-error-vector, this intersection error will instead have 3 bands, corresponding to the North-East-Down coordinates of that vector (Section 17.5), unless the option --scalar-error is set.

--t_srs <string (default: “”)>

Specify the output projection as a GDAL projection string (WKT, GeoJSON, or PROJ.4). If not provided, will be read from the point cloud, if available.

--t_projwin <xmin ymin xmax ymax>

The output DEM will have corners with these georeferenced coordinates. The actual spatial extent (ground footprint) is obtained by expanding this box by half the grid size.

--datum <string>

Set the datum. This will override the datum from the input images and also --t_srs, --semi-major-axis, and --semi-minor-axis. Options:

  • WGS_1984

  • D_MOON (1,737,400 meters)

  • D_MARS (3,396,190 meters)

  • MOLA (3,396,000 meters)

  • NAD83

  • WGS72

  • NAD27

  • Earth (alias for WGS_1984)

  • Mars (alias for D_MARS)

  • Moon (alias for D_MOON)

--reference-spheroid <string (default: “”)>

This is identical to the datum option.

--semi-major-axis <float (default: 0)>

Explicitly set the datum semi-major axis in meters.

--semi-minor-axis <float (default: 0)>

Explicitly set the datum semi-minor axis in meters.


Save using a sinusoidal projection.


Save using a Mercator projection.


Save using a transverse Mercator projection.


Save using an orthographic projection.


Save using a stereographic projection. See also --auto-proj-center.


Save using an oblique stereographic projection.


Save using a gnomonic projection.


Save using a Lambert azimuthal projection.

--utm <zone>

Save using a UTM projection with the given zone.

--proj-lat <float (default: 0)>

The center of projection latitude (if applicable).

--proj-lon <float (default: 0)>

The center of projection longitude (if applicable).


Automatically compute the projection center, when the projection is stereographic, etc. Use the median longitude and latitude of cloud points. This overrides the values of --proj-lon and --proj-lat.

-s, --tr, --dem-spacing <float (default: 0)>

Set output DEM resolution (in target georeferenced units per pixel). These units may be in degrees or meters, depending on your projection. If not specified, it will be computed automatically (except for LAS and CSV files). Multiple spacings can be set (in quotes) to generate multiple output files.

--search-radius-factor <float>

Multiply this factor by the --dem-spacing value to get the search radius. The DEM height at a given grid point is obtained as a weighted average of heights of all points in the cloud within search radius of the grid point, with the weights given by a Gaussian. If not specified, the default search radius is max(dem-spacing, default_dem_spacing), so the default factor is about 1. See also --gaussian-sigma-factor.

--gaussian-sigma-factor <float (default: 0)>

The value \(s\) to be used in the Gaussian \(exp(-s*(x/grid\_size)^2)\) when computing the DEM. The default is -log(0.25) = 1.3863. A smaller value will result in a smoother terrain.

--csv-format <string (default: “”)>

Specify the format of input CSV files as a list of entries column_index:column_type (indices start from 1). Examples: 1:x 2:y 3:z (a Cartesian coordinate system with origin at planet center is assumed, with the units being in meters), 5:lon 6:lat 7:radius_m (longitude and latitude are in degrees, the radius is measured in meters from planet center), 3:lat 2:lon 1:height_above_datum, 1:easting 2:northing 3:height_above_datum (need to set --csv-proj4; the height above datum is in meters). Can also use radius_km for column_type, when it is again measured from planet center.

--csv-proj4 <string (default: “”)>

The PROJ.4 string to use to interpret the entries in input CSV files, if those files contain Easting and Northing fields. If not specified, --t_srs will be used.

--filter <string (default: “weighted_average”)>

The filter to apply to the heights of the cloud points within a given circular neighborhood when gridding (its radius is controlled via --search-radius-factor). Options:

  • weighted_average (default),

  • min

  • max

  • mean

  • median

  • stddev

  • count (number of points)

  • nmad (= 1.4826 * median(abs(X - median(X)))),

  • n-pct (where n is a real value between 0 and 100, for example, 80-pct, meaning, 80th percentile). Except for the default, the name of the filter will be added to the obtained DEM file name, e.g., output-min-DEM.tif if --filter min is used.


Write files with names <output prefix>-HorizontalStdDev.tif and <output prefix>-VerticalStdDev.tif having the gridded stddev produced from bands 5 and 6 of the input point cloud, if this cloud was created with the parallel_stereo option --propagate-errors (Section 14). The same gridding algorithm is used as for creating the DEM.

--remove-outliers-params <pct factor (default: 75.0 3.0)>

Outlier removal based on percentage. Points with triangulation error larger than pct-th percentile times factor and points too far from the cluster of most points will be removed as outliers.


Remove outliers above Q3 + 1.5*(Q3 - Q1). Takes precedence over --remove-outliers-params.

--max-valid-triangulation-error <float (default: 0)>

Outlier removal based on threshold. If positive, points with triangulation error larger than this will be removed from the cloud. Measured in meters. This option takes precedence over --remove-outliers-params and --use-tukey-outlier-removal.


If the point cloud has a vector triangulation error, ensure that the intersection error produced by this program is the rasterized norm of that vector. See also --error-image.

-t, --output-filetype <string (default: tif)>

Specify the output file type.

--x-offset <float (default: 0)>

Add a longitude offset (in degrees) to the DEM.

--y-offset <float (default: 0)>

Add a latitude offset (in degrees) to the DEM.

--z-offset <float (default: 0)>

Add a vertical offset (in meters) to the DEM.

--rotation-order <string (default: “xyz”)>

Set the order of an Euler angle rotation applied to the 3D points prior to DEM rasterization.

--phi-rotation <float (default: 0)>

Set a rotation angle phi.

--omega-rotation <float (default: 0)>

Set a rotation angle omega.

--kappa-rotation <float (default: 0)>

Set a rotation angle kappa.

--proj-scale <float (default: 1)>

The projection scale (if applicable).

--false-northing <float (default: 0)>

The projection false northing (if applicable).

--false-easting <float (default: 0)>

The projection false easting (if applicable).


Input data is already in projected coordinates, or is a point cloud in Cartesian coordinates that is small in extent. Need not be spatially organized. If both a top and bottom surface exists, one of them must be cropped out. Point (0, 0, 0) is considered invalid. Must specify a projection to interpret the data amd the output grid size.

--rounding-error <float (default: 1/2^{10}=0.0009765625)>

How much to round the output DEM and errors, in meters (more rounding means less precision but potentially smaller size on disk). The inverse of a power of 2 is suggested.

--dem-hole-fill-len <integer (default: 0)>

Maximum dimensions of a hole in the output DEM to fill in, in pixels.

--orthoimage-hole-fill-len <integer (default: 0)>

Maximum dimensions of a hole in the output orthoimage to fill in, in pixels. See also --orthoimage-hole-fill-extra-len.

--orthoimage-hole-fill-extra-len <integer (default: 0)>

This value, in pixels, will make orthoimage hole filling more aggressive by first extrapolating the point cloud. A small value is suggested to avoid artifacts. Hole-filling also works better when less strict with outlier removal, such as in --remove-outliers-params, etc.

--max-output-size <columns rows>

Creating of the DEM will be aborted if it is calculated to exceed this size in pixels.

--median-filter-params <window_size (integer) threshold (float)>

If the point cloud height at the current point differs by more than the given threshold from the median of heights in the window of given size centered at the point, remove it as an outlier. Use for example 11 and 40.0.

--erode-length <integer (default: 0)>

Erode input point clouds by this many pixels at boundary (after outliers are removed, but before filling in holes).


Use the older algorithm, interpret the point cloud as a surface made up of triangles and sample it (prone to aliasing).


Oversampling amount to perform antialiasing. Obsolete, can be used only in conjunction with --use-surface-sampling.

--threads <integer (default: 0)>

Select the number of threads to use for each process. If 0, use the value in ~/.vwrc.

--cache-size-mb <integer (default = 1024)>

Set the system cache size, in MB.


Tell GDAL to not create BigTIFF files.

--tif-compress <None|LZW|Deflate|Packbits (default: LZW)>

TIFF compression method.